Numerous CTHB projects aim to improve our understanding regarding the biology and ecology of the microbes and insects associated with woody hosts indigenous to South Africa.

The tree species receiving most attention are Syzygium cordatum, Syzygium guineense, Acacia karroo, Acacia mellifera, Acacia erioloba, Adansonia digitata, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sclerocarya birrea, Rapanea melanophloeos, Colophospermum mopane, Aloe plictilis and species in the Proteaceae, Rutaceae, Rubiaceae and the genera Virgillia and Terminalia.

The specific microbes that are targeted include species in the Botryosphaeriaceae, Cryphonectriaceae and Uredinales (Ravenelia, Puccinia and Uromyces), as well as the genera Armillaria, Ganoderma, Fusarium, Mycosphaerella, Phellinus, Ceratocystis, Gondwanamyces, Coniothyrium (Colletogloeopsis / Phaeophleospora / Kirramyces), Cylindrocladium, Dothistroma, Pantoea, Ophiostoma, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus and Phytophthora.

The insects currently receiving most attention include bark beetles, bruchid beetles, as well as Coryphodema tristis and a number of species that could possibly be used in biocontrol programmes.

Various CTHB projects also consider the ecology and population biology of specific tree species to evaluate the effect that human practices (e.g. timber harvesting, coppicing, bark stripping, etc.) might have on the target plant, ecosystems and the conservation of natural habitats. Many further focus on the possible impacts that soil properties, nutrients, rhizobial symbioses and climatic factors might have on the invasiveness of certain species in diverse landscapes. A small number of projects also aim to investigate the effects that drought, frost and fire might have on the sustainable usage of indigenous woody resources.

New Publications

van der Nest A, Wingfield MJ, Ortiz PC, Barnes I. (2019) Biodiversity of Lecanosticta pine-needle blight pathogens suggests a Mesoamerican Centre of origin.. IMA Fungus 1:2 10.1186/s43008-019-0004-8
Beukes CW, Boshoff FS, Phalane FL, Hassen AI, le Roux MM, Stępkowski T, Venter SN, Steenkamp ET. (2019) Both alpha- and beta-rhizobia occupy the root nodules of Vachellia karroo in South Africa. 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01195 PDF
Ioos R, Aloi F, Piskur B, Guinet C, Mullet M, Berbegal M, Braganca H, Cacciola SO, Oskay F, Cornejo C, Adamson K, Douanla-Meli C, Kacergius A, Martinez-Alvarez P, Nowakowska JA, Luchi N, Vettraino AM, Ahumada R, Pasquali M, Fourie G, Kanetis L, Alves A, Ghelardini L, Dvorak M, Sanz-Ros A, Diez JJ, Baskarathevan J, Aguayo J. (2019) Transferability of PCR-based diagnostic protocols: An international collaborative case study assessing protocols targeting the quarantine pine pathogen Fusarium circinatum. Scientific Reports 10.1038/s41598-019-44672-8
Beukes CW, Sereme TK, Phalane FL, Mthombeni LS, Palmer M, Hassen AI, Chan WY, Avontuur J, van Zyl E, Steenkamp ET, Venter SN. (2019) Paraburkholderia strydomiana sp. nov. and Paraburkholderia steynii sp. nov.: rhizobial symbionts of the fynbos legume Hypocalyptus sophoroides. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 10.1007/s10482-019-01269-5
Wilson AM, van der Nest MA, Wilken PM, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2019) It’s All in the Genes: The Regulatory Pathways of Sexual Reproduction in Filamentous Ascomycetes. Genes 10(5):330. 10.3390/genes10050330
Palmer M, Venter SN, McTaggart AR, Coetzee MPA, Van Wyk S, Avontuur JR, Beukes CW, Fourie G, Santana QC, Van der Nest MA, Blom J, Steenkamp ET. (2019) The synergistic effect of concatenation in phylogenomics: the case in Pantoea. PeerJ 10.7717/peerj.6698 PDF
Wingfield BD, Millar B. (2019) How the open access model hurts academics in poorer countries. The Conversation https://bit.ly/2Gn3skG
Fell S, De Beer ZW. (2019) The impact of the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer on Pecan trees in South Africa. SA Pecan 82:11-13. https://bit.ly/2U2Nyj6 PDF
Avontuur JR, Palmer M, Beukes CW, Chan WY, Coetzee MPA, Blom J, Stępkowski T, Kyrpides NC, Woyke T, Shapiro N, Whitman WB, Venter SN, Steenkamp ET. (2019) Genome-informed Bradyrhizobium taxonomy: where to from here?. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 10.1016/j.syapm.2019.03.006
Bradshaw RE, Sim AD, Chettri P, Dupont P-Y, Guo Y, Hunziker L, McDougal RL, van der Nest A, Fourie A, Wheeler D, Cox MP, Barnes I. (2019) Global population genomics of the forest pathogen Dothistroma septosporum reveal chromosome duplications in high dothistromin-producing strains. Molecular Plant Pathology 10.1111/mpp.12791
Naidoo S, Slippers B, Plett JM, Coles D, Oates CN. (2019) The road to resistance in forest trees. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:273. 10.3389/fpls.2019.00273
Martın-Garcia J, Zas R, Solla A, Woodward S, Hantula J, Vainio EJ, Mullett M, Morales-Rodrıguez M, Vannini A, Martınez-Alvarez P, Pinto G, Alves A, Amaral J, Wingfield MJ, Fourie G, Steenkamp ET, Ahumada R, Sera B, Sanz-Ros AV, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M, Iturritxa E, Gordon TR , Diez JJ. (2019) Environmentally friendly methods for controlling pine pitch canker . Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.13009
Slippers B, Alisic E. (2019) African science needs more leaders. Here’s how to develop them. The Conversation
Sadiković D, Piškur B, Barnes I, Hauptman T, Diminić D, Wingfield MJ, Jurc D. (2019) Genetic diversity of the pine pathogen Lecanosticta acicola, in Slovenia and Croatia. Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.13017
Haavik LJ, Hurley BP, Allison JD. (2019) Effect of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) attack density on Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) survival. Canadian Entomologist 10.4039/tce.2019.12
Wondafrash M, Slippers B, Hurley BP, Garnas J. (2019) Local antagonism and resource partitioning between two invasive pine plantation pests. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 10.1111/afe.12330 PDF
Van den Berg N, Du Toit M, Morgan SW, Fourie G, De Beer ZW. (2019) First Report of Fusarium euwallaceae on Persea americana in South Africa. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-10-18-1818-PDN
Nel WJ, Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Black root rot: A long known but little understood disease. Plant Pathology 68(5):834-842. 10.1111/ppa.13011
van der Nest MA, Wingfield MJ, McTaggart AR, Van Wyk S, De Vos L, Trollip C, Santana QC, Naidoo K, Dong TA, Wilken PM, Chan W-Y, Palmer M, Soal NA, Roodt D, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield BD. (2019) Genomic analysis of the aggressive tree pathogen Ceratocystis albifundus. Fungal Biology 10.1016/j.funbio.2019.02.002 PDF
Zlatkovic M, Wingfield MJ, Jami F, Slippers B. (2019) Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia sapinea in the Western Balkans. Forest Pathology 49:e12491. 10.1111/efp.12491
Zumaquero A, Martinez-Ferri E, Matas AJ, Reeksting B, Olivier NA, Pliego-Alfaro F, Barcelo A, van den Berg N, Pliego C. (2019) Rosellinia necatrix infection induces differential gene expression between tolerant and susceptible avocado rootstocks. PLoS ONE 14(2):e0212359. 10.1371/journal.pone.0212359
Backer R, Naidoo S, van den Berg N. (2019) The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) and Related Family: Mechanistic Insights in Plant Disease Resistance. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:102. 10.3389/fpls.2019.00102
du Plessis E, Granados GM, Barnes I, Ho WH, Alexander BJR, Roux J, McTaggart AR. (2019) The pandemic strain of Austropuccinia psidii causes myrtle rust in New Zealand and Singapore. Australasian Plant Pathology 48:253-256. 10.1007/s13313-019-0624-x
Stevens GG, Pérez-Fernández MA, Morcillo RJL, Kleinert A, Hills P, Brand DJ, Steenkamp ET, Valentine AJ. (2019) Roots and nodules responds differently to P starvation in the mediterranean-type legume Virgilia divaricata. Frontiers in Plant Science 10 10.3389/fpls.2019.00073
Fitza KNE, Garnas JR, Lombardero MJ, Ayres MP, Krivak-Tetley FE, Ahumada R, Hurley BP, Wingfield MJ, Slippers B. (2019) The global diversity of Deladenus siricidicola in native and non-native populations. Biological Control 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.01.014
Pham NQ, Barnes I, Chen SF, Liu FF, Dang NQ, Pham TQ, Lombard L, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Ten new species of Calonectria from Indonesia and Vietnam. Mycologia 111:78-102. 10.1080/00275514.2018.1522179 PDF
Nsibo DL, Barnes I, Kunene NT, Berger DK. (2019) Influence of farming practices on the population genetics of the maize pathogen Cercospora zeina in South Africa. Fungal Genetics and Biology 125:36-44. 10.1016/j.fgb.2019.01.005
Conlon BH, Aanen DK, Beemelmanns C, De Beer ZW, De Fine Licht HH, Gunde-Cimerman N, Schiøtt M, Poulsen M. (2019) Reviewing the taxonomy of Podaxis: opportunities for understanding extreme fungal lifestyles. Fungal Biology 123(3):183-266. 10.1016/j.funbio.2019.01.001
Kanzi AM, Steenkamp ET, Van der Merwe NA, Wingfield BD. (2019) The mating system of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana and closely related species. Fungal Genetics and Biology 123:41-52. 10.1016/j.fgb.2018.12.001 PDF
Liu FF, Li GQ, Roux J, Barnes I, Wilson AM, Wingfield MJ, Chen SF. (2019) Nine novel species of Huntiella from southern China with three distinct mating strategies and variable levels of pathogenicity. Mycologia 110:1145-1171. 10.1080/00275514.2018.1515450 PDF
Kuhn DN, Livingstone DS, Richards JH, Manosalva P, van den Berg N, Chambers AH. (2019) Application of genomic tools to avocado (Persea americana) breeding: SNP discovery for genotyping and germplasm characterization. Scientia Horticulturae 246:1-11. 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.10.011
Aylward J, Roets F, Dreyer LL, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Teratosphaeria stem canker of Eucalyptus: two pathogens, one devastating disease. Molecular Plant Pathology 20(1):8-19. 10.1111/mpp.12758
Palmer M, Venter SN, Coetzee MPA, Steenkamp ET. (2019) Prokaryotic species are sui generis evolutionary units. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 42(2):145-158. 10.1016/j.syapm.2018.10.002
Fru FF, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2019) High genetic diversity of Fusarium circinatum associated with the first outbreak of pitch canker on Pinus patula in South Africa. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 10.2989/20702620.2018.1496312
Burgess TI, Tan YP, Garnas J, Edwards J, Scarlett KA, Shuttleworth LA, Daniel R, Dann EK, Parkinson LE, Dinh Q, Shivas RG, Jami F. (2019) Current status of the Botryosphaeriaceae in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 10.1007/s13313-018-0577-5 PDF
Tan YP, Shivas RG, Marney TS , Edwards J , Dearnaley J , Jami F , Burgess TI. (2019) Australian cultures of Botryosphaeriaceae held in Queensland and Victoria plant pathology herbaria revisited. Australasian Plant Pathology 10.1007/s13313-018-0559-7 PDF
Meurisse N, Rassati D, Hurley BP, Brockerhoff EG, Haack RA. (2019) Common pathways by which non-native forest insects move internationally and domestically. Journal of Pest Science 10.1007/s10340-018-0990-0
Kenis M, Hurley BP, Colombari F, Lawson S, Sun J, Wilcken C, Weeks R, Sathyapala S. 2019. Guide to the classical biological control of insect pests in planted and natural forests. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Rome. PDF
de Lajudie P, Andrews M, Ardley J, Eardly B, Jumas-Bilak E, Kuzmanovic N, Lassalle F, Lindstrom K, Mhamdi R, Martinez-Romero E, Moulin L, Mousavi SA, Nesme X, Peix A, Pulawska J, Steenkamp ET, Stepkowski T, Tian C-F, Vinuesa P, Wei G, Willems A, Zilli J, Young P. (2019) Minimal standards for the description of new genera and species of rhizobia and agrobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 10.1099/iijsem.0.003426
Sayari M, van der Nest MA, Steenkamp ET, Soal NC, Wilken PM, Wingfield BD. (2019) Distribution and evolution of nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters in the Ceratocystidaceae. Genes 10, 328 10.3390/genes10050328
Sayari M, van der Nest MA, Steenkamp ET, Adegeye OO, Marincowitz S, Wingfield BD. (2019) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Ceratocystis albifundus. Microbiological Research 226:55-64. 10.1016/j.micres.2019.05.004
Crous PW, Luangsa-ard JJ, Wingfield MJ, Carnegie AJ, Hernández-Restrepo M, Lombard L, Roux J, Barreto RW, Baseia IG, Cano-Lira JF, Martín MP, Morozova OV, Stchigel AM, Summerell BA, Brandrud TE, Dima B, García D, Giraldo A, Guarro J, Gusmão LFP, Khamsuntorn P, Noordeloos ME, Nuankaew S, Pinruan U, Rodríguez-Andrade E, Souza-Motta CM, Thangavel R, van Iperen AL, Abreu VP, Accioly T, Alves JL, Andrade JP, Bahram M, Baral HO, Barbier E, Barnes CW, Bendiksen E, Bernard E, Bezerra JDP, Bezerra JL, Bizio E, Blair JE, Bulyonkova TM, Cabral TS, Caiafa MV, Cantillo T, Colmán AA, Conceição LB, Cruz S, Cunha AOB, Darveaux BA, da Silva AL, da Silva GA, da Silva GM, da Silva RMF, de Oliveira RJV, Oliveira RL, De Souza JT, Dueñas M, Evans HC, Epifani F, Felipe MTC, Fernández-López J, Ferreira BW, Figueiredo CN, Filippova NV, Flores JA, Gené J, Ghorbani G, Gibertoni TB, Glushakova AM, Healy R, Huhndorf SM, Iturrieta-González I, Javan-Nikkhah M, Juciano RF, Jurjevi, Kachalkin AV, Keochanpheng K, Krisai-Greilhuber I, Li YC, Lima AA, Machado AR, Madrid H, Magalhães OMC, Marbach PAS, Melanda GCS, Miller AN, Mongkolsamrit S, Nascimento RP, Oliveira TGL, Ordoñez ME, Orzes R, Palma MA, Pearce CJ, Pereira OL, Perrone G, Peterson SW, Pham THG, Piontelli E, Pordel A, Quijada L, Raja HA, Rosas de Paz E, Ryvarden L, Saitta A, Salcedo SS, Sandoval-Denis M, Santos TAB, Seifert KA, Silva BDB, Smith ME, Soares AM, Sommai S, Sousa JO, Suetrong S, Susca A, Tedersoo L, Telleria MT, Thanakitpipattana D, Valenzuela-Lopez N, Visagie CM, Zapata M, Groenewald JZ. (2018) Fungal Planet description sheets: 785-867. Persoonia 41(1):238-417. 10.3767/persoonia.2018.41.12
Wingfield BD, Kolarik M, Menzies JG, Naidoo K, Pochopski O, Shoukouhi P, Santana QC, Seifert KA, Soal NA, Steenkamp ET, Tatham CT, Van der Nest MA, Havenga M, Findlay W, Liu M, Nguyen HDT, Lane FA, Morgan SW, De Vos L, Wilken PM, Doung TA, Aylward J, Coetzee MPA, Dadej K, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2018) Nine draft genome sequences of Claviceps purpurea s.lat., including C. arundinis, C. humidiphila, and C. cf. spartinae, pseudomolecules for the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum, draft genome of Davidsoniella eucalypti, Grosmannia galeiformis, Quambalaria eucalypti, and Teratosphaeria destructans. IMA Fungus 9(2):401-418. 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.02.10 PDF
Ebinghaus M, Maier W, Wingfield MJ. (2018) New host associations and a novel species for the gall-inducing Acacia rust genus Ravenelia in South Africa. MycoKeys (43):1-21. 10.3897/mycokeys.43.25090
Lee SR, Lee D, Yu JS, Benndorf R, Lee D-S, Huh J, de Beer ZW, Kim YH, Beemelmanns C, Kang KS, Kim KH. (2018) Natalenamides A–C, Cyclic Tripeptides from the Termite-Associated Actinomadura sp. RB99. Molecules 23(11) 10.3390/molecules23113003
McTaggart AR, Duong TA, Le VQ, Shuey LS, Smidt W, Naidoo S, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2018) Chromium sequencing: the doors open for genomics of obligate plant pathogens. BioTechniques 65(5):253-257. 10.2144/btn-2018-0019
De Beer ZW, Paap T. (2018) The spread of shothole borer beetles in South Africa is proving tough to control. The Conversation https://bit.ly/2Dl46ia
Coetzee MPA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2018) Armillaria root-rot pathogens: Species boundaries and global distribution. Pathogens 7(3):83. 10.3390/pathogens7040083
Aylward J, Wingfield BD, Dreyer LL, Roets F, Wingfield MJ, Steenkamp ET. (2018) Genomic overview of closely related fungi with different Protea host ranges. Fungal Biology 122(12):1201-1214. 10.1016/j.funbio.2018.10.001
van den Berg N, Mohamed W, Olivier NA, Swart V, Crampton B. (2018) Transcriptome analysis of an incompatible Persea americana-Phytophthora cinnamomi interaction reveals the involvement of SA- and JA-pathways in a successful defense response. PLoS ONE 13(10):e0205705. 10.1371/journal.pone.0205705