The Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP) was established based on a very small team of researchers at the University of the Free State and focused on a single threatening Eucalyptus disease problem. The programme has since grown to become highly recognised internationally as the single strongest programme dealing with pest and pathogen problems in plantation forestry in the world. The TPCP has also brought huge energy to agricultural research and education in the biological sciences in South Africa. For example, it formed the foundation for the establishment of the Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) at the University of Pretoria, which has become a flagship research centre promoting many aspects of plant improvement in South Africa.

The TPCP represents a Co-operative research initiative between the University of Pretoria and all private forestry companies in South Africa. It is also supported by the South African Government Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Other than long and short-term research, the TPCP provides members with extension services, training of forestry students at Universities, access to a world-class disease and pest diagnostic clinic and guidance in dealing with tree pest and pathogen problems. One of the key products of the TPCP is to produce biological control agents for insect pests that damage plantations belonging to members. This work depends on outstanding quarantine green house and related facilities.

The TPCP formed the basis for the establishment of the Department of Science and Technology (DST)/National Research Foundation (NRF) Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB). This programme focuses on the health of native South African trees. Given that pests and pathogens are moving from native to non-native plantation trees and vice versa, there is substantial synergy between these two programmes.

New Publications

Haavik LJ, Hurley BP, Allison JD. (2019) Effect of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) attack density on Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) survival. Canadian Entomologist 10.4039/tce.2019.12
Wondafrash M, Slippers B, Hurley BP, Garnas J. (2019) Local antagonism and resource partitioning between two invasive pine plantation pests. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 10.1111/afe.12330 PDF
Van den Berg N, Du Toit M, Morgan SW, Fourie G, De Beer ZW. (2019) First Report of Fusarium euwallaceae on Persea americana in South Africa. Plant Disease 10.1094/PDIS-10-18-1818-PDN
Nel WJ, Duong TA, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Black root rot: A long known but little understood disease. Plant Pathology 10.1111/ppa.13011
van der Nest MA, Wingfield MJ, McTaggart AR, Van Wyk S, De Vos L, Trollip C, Santana QC, Naidoo K, Dong TA, Wilken PM, Chan W-Y, Palmer M, Soal NA, Roodt D, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield BD. (2019) Genomic analysis of the aggressive tree pathogen Ceratocystis albifundus. Fungal Biology 10.1016/j.funbio.2019.02.002 PDF
Zlatkovic M, Wingfield MJ, Jami F, Slippers B. (2019) Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia sapinea in the Western Balkans. Forest Pathology 49:e12491. 10.1111/efp.12491
Zumaquero A, Martinez-Ferri E, Matas AJ, Reeksting B, Olivier NA, Pliego-Alfaro F, Barcelo A, van den Berg N, Pliego C. (2019) Rosellinia necatrix infection induces differential gene expression between tolerant and susceptible avocado rootstocks. PLoS ONE 14(2):e0212359. 10.1371/journal.pone.0212359
Backer R, Naidoo S, van den Berg N. (2019) The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) and Related Family: Mechanistic Insights in Plant Disease Resistance. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:102. 10.3389/fpls.2019.00102
du Plessis E, Granados GM, Barnes I, Ho WH, Alexander BJR, Roux J, McTaggart AR. (2019) The pandemic strain of Austropuccinia psidii causes myrtle rust in New Zealand and Singapore. Australasian Plant Pathology :1-4. 10.1007/s13313-019-0624-x
Stevens GG, Pérez-Fernández MA, Morcillo RJL, Kleinert A, Hills P, Brand DJ, Steenkamp ET, Valentine AJ. (2019) Roots and nodules responds differently to P starvation in the mediterranean-type legume Virgilia divaricata. Frontiers in Plant Science 10 10.3389/fpls.2019.00073
Fitza KNE, Garnas JR, Lombardero MJ, Ayres MP, Krivak-Tetley FE, Ahumada R, Hurley BP, Wingfield MJ, Slippers B. (2019) The global diversity of Deladenus siricidicola in native and non-native populations. Biological Control 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.01.014
Pham NQ, Barnes I, Chen SF, Liu FF, Dang NQ, Pham TQ, Lombard L, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Ten new species of Calonectria from Indonesia and Vietnam. Mycologia 10.1080/00275514.2018.1522179 PDF
Nsibo DL, Barnes I, Kunene NT, Berger DK. (2019) Influence of farming practices on the population genetics of the maize pathogen Cercospora zeina in South Africa. Fungal Genetics and Biology 10.1016/j.fgb.2019.01.005
Conlon BH, Aanen DK, Beemelmanns C, De Beer ZW, De Fine Licht HH, Gunde-Cimerman N, Schiøtt M, Poulsen M. (2019) Reviewing the taxonomy of Podaxis: opportunities for understanding extreme fungal lifestyles. Fungal Biology 123(3):183-266. 10.1016/j.funbio.2019.01.001
Kanzi AM, Steenkamp ET, Van der Merwe NA, Wingfield BD. (2019) The mating system of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana and closely related species. Fungal Genetics and Biology 123:41-52. 10.1016/j.fgb.2018.12.001 PDF
Liu FF, Li GQ, Roux J, Barnes I, Wilson AM, Wingfield MJ, Chen SF. (2019) Nine novel species of Huntiella from southern China with three distinct mating strategies and variable levels of pathogenicity. Mycologia 10.1080/00275514.2018.1515450 PDF
Kuhn DN, Livingstone DS, Richards JH, Manosalva P, van den Berg N, Chambers AH. (2019) Application of genomic tools to avocado (Persea americana) breeding: SNP discovery for genotyping and germplasm characterization. Scientia Horticulturae 246:1-11. 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.10.011
Aylward J, Roets F, Dreyer LL, Wingfield MJ. (2019) Teratosphaeria stem canker of Eucalyptus: two pathogens, one devastating disease. Molecular Plant Pathology 20(1):8-19. 10.1111/mpp.12758
Palmer M, Venter SN, Coetzee MPA, Steenkamp ET. (2019) Prokaryotic species are sui generis evolutionary units. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 42(2):145-158. 10.1016/j.syapm.2018.10.002
Fru FF, Steenkamp ET, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2019) High genetic diversity of Fusarium circinatum associated with the first outbreak of pitch canker on Pinus patula in South Africa. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 10.2989/20702620.2018.1496312
Burgess TI, Tan YP, Garnas J, Edwards J, Scarlett KA, Shuttleworth LA, Daniel R, Dann EK, Parkinson LE, Dinh Q, Shivas RG, Jami F. (2019) Current status of the Botryosphaeriaceae in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 10.1007/s13313-018-0577-5 PDF
Tan YP, Shivas RG, Marney TS , Edwards J , Dearnaley J , Jami F , Burgess TI. (2019) Australian cultures of Botryosphaeriaceae held in Queensland and Victoria plant pathology herbaria revisited. Australasian Plant Pathology 10.1007/s13313-018-0559-7 PDF
Meurisse N, Rassati D, Hurley BP, Brockerhoff EG, Haack RA. (2019) Common pathways by which non-native forest insects move internationally and domestically. Journal of Pest Science 10.1007/s10340-018-0990-0
Crous PW, Luangsa-ard JJ, Wingfield MJ, Carnegie AJ, Hernández-Restrepo M, Lombard L, Roux J, Barreto RW, Baseia IG, Cano-Lira JF, Martín MP, Morozova OV, Stchigel AM, Summerell BA, Brandrud TE, Dima B, García D, Giraldo A, Guarro J, Gusmão LFP, Khamsuntorn P, Noordeloos ME, Nuankaew S, Pinruan U, Rodríguez-Andrade E, Souza-Motta CM, Thangavel R, van Iperen AL, Abreu VP, Accioly T, Alves JL, Andrade JP, Bahram M, Baral HO, Barbier E, Barnes CW, Bendiksen E, Bernard E, Bezerra JDP, Bezerra JL, Bizio E, Blair JE, Bulyonkova TM, Cabral TS, Caiafa MV, Cantillo T, Colmán AA, Conceição LB, Cruz S, Cunha AOB, Darveaux BA, da Silva AL, da Silva GA, da Silva GM, da Silva RMF, de Oliveira RJV, Oliveira RL, De Souza JT, Dueñas M, Evans HC, Epifani F, Felipe MTC, Fernández-López J, Ferreira BW, Figueiredo CN, Filippova NV, Flores JA, Gené J, Ghorbani G, Gibertoni TB, Glushakova AM, Healy R, Huhndorf SM, Iturrieta-González I, Javan-Nikkhah M, Juciano RF, Jurjevi, Kachalkin AV, Keochanpheng K, Krisai-Greilhuber I, Li YC, Lima AA, Machado AR, Madrid H, Magalhães OMC, Marbach PAS, Melanda GCS, Miller AN, Mongkolsamrit S, Nascimento RP, Oliveira TGL, Ordoñez ME, Orzes R, Palma MA, Pearce CJ, Pereira OL, Perrone G, Peterson SW, Pham THG, Piontelli E, Pordel A, Quijada L, Raja HA, Rosas de Paz E, Ryvarden L, Saitta A, Salcedo SS, Sandoval-Denis M, Santos TAB, Seifert KA, Silva BDB, Smith ME, Soares AM, Sommai S, Sousa JO, Suetrong S, Susca A, Tedersoo L, Telleria MT, Thanakitpipattana D, Valenzuela-Lopez N, Visagie CM, Zapata M, Groenewald JZ. (2018) Fungal Planet description sheets: 785-867. Persoonia 41(1):238-417. 10.3767/persoonia.2018.41.12
Wingfield BD, Kolarik M, Menzies JG, Naidoo K, Pochopski O, Shoukouhi P, Santana QC, Seifert KA, Soal NA, Steenkamp ET, Tatham CT, Van der Nest MA, Havenga M, Findlay W, Liu M, Nguyen HDT, Lane FA, Morgan SW, De Vos L, Wilken PM, Doung TA, Aylward J, Coetzee MPA, Dadej K, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ. (2018) Nine draft genome sequences of Claviceps purpurea s.lat., including C. arundinis, C. humidiphila, and C. cf. spartinae, pseudomolecules for the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum, draft genome of Davidsoniella eucalypti, Grosmannia galeiformis, Quambalaria eucalypti, and Teratosphaeria destructans. IMA Fungus 9(2):401-418. 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.02.10 PDF
Ebinghaus M, Maier W, Wingfield MJ. (2018) New host associations and a novel species for the gall-inducing Acacia rust genus Ravenelia in South Africa. MycoKeys (43):1-21. 10.3897/mycokeys.43.25090
Lee SR, Lee D, Yu JS, Benndorf R, Lee D-S, Huh J, de Beer ZW, Kim YH, Beemelmanns C, Kang KS, Kim KH. (2018) Natalenamides A–C, Cyclic Tripeptides from the Termite-Associated Actinomadura sp. RB99. Molecules 23(11) 10.3390/molecules23113003
McTaggart AR, Duong TA, Le VQ, Shuey LS, Smidt W, Naidoo S, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD. (2018) Chromium sequencing: the doors open for genomics of obligate plant pathogens. BioTechniques 65(5):253-257. 10.2144/btn-2018-0019
De Beer ZW, Paap T. (2018) The spread of shothole borer beetles in South Africa is proving tough to control. The Conversation https://bit.ly/2Dl46ia
Coetzee MPA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. (2018) Armillaria root-rot pathogens: Species boundaries and global distribution. Pathogens 7(3):83. 10.3390/pathogens7040083
Aylward J, Wingfield BD, Dreyer LL, Roets F, Wingfield MJ, Steenkamp ET. (2018) Genomic overview of closely related fungi with different Protea host ranges. Fungal Biology 122(12):1201-1214. 10.1016/j.funbio.2018.10.001
van den Berg N, Mohamed W, Olivier NA, Swart V, Crampton B. (2018) Transcriptome analysis of an incompatible Persea americana-Phytophthora cinnamomi interaction reveals the involvement of SA- and JA-pathways in a successful defense response. PLoS ONE 13(10):e0205705. 10.1371/journal.pone.0205705
Vivas M, Rolo V, Wingfield MJ, Slippers B. (2018) Maternal environment regulates morphological and physiological traits in Eucalyptus grandis. Forest Ecology and Management 432(15):631-636. 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.10.016
Mlonyeni XO, Wingfield BD, Greeff JM, Hurley BP, Wingfield MJ, Slippers B. (2018) Population variation in traits of Deladenus siricidicola that could influence the biocontrol of Sirex noctilio in South Africa. International Journal of Pest Management 64(4):324-332. 10.1080/09670874.2017.1421327 PDF
Simpson MC, Martin Coetzee, Magriet van der Nest, Mike Wingfield, Brenda Wingfield. (2018) Ceratocystidaceae exhibit high levels of recombination at the mating-type (MAT) locus. Fungal Biology 122(12):1184-1191. 10.1016/j.funbio.2018.09.003
Benndorf R, Guo H, Sommerwerk E, Weigel C, Garcia-Altares M, Martin K, Hu H, Küfner M, De Beer ZW, Poulsen M, Beemelmanns C. (2018) Natural products from Actinobacteria associated with fungus-growing termites. Antibiotics 7(3):83. 10.3390/antibiotics7030083 PDF
Bose T, Wingfield MJ, Roux J, Vivas M, Burgess TI. (2018) Community composition and distribution of Phytophthora species across adjacent native and non-native forests of South Africa. Fungal Ecology 36:17-25. 10.1016/j.funeco.2018.09.001
Nel WJ, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD, Hammerbacher A, De Beer ZW. (2018) Heterothallism revealed in the root rot fungi Berkeleyomyces basicola and B. rouxiae. Fungal Biology 122(11):1031-1040. 10.1016/j.funbio.2018.08.006
Baron S, Van der Merwe NA, Maritz-Olivier C. (2018) The genetic relationship between R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks in South Africa and their population structure. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 129:60-69. 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.08.003 PDF
Chang R, Duong TA, Taerum SJ, Wingfield MJ, Zhou XD, Yin M, De Beer ZW. (2018) Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, including 11 new species from China. Persoonia 42:50-74. 10.3767/persoonia.2019.42.03 PDF
Jami F , Marincowitz S, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ. (2018) New Botryosphaeriales on native red milkwood (Mimusops caffra). Australasian Plant Pathology 47(5):475-484. 10.1007/s13313-018-0586-4 PDF
Estrada-de los Santos P, Palmer M, Chávez-Ramírez B, Beukes C, Steenkamp ET, Briscoe L, Khan N, Maluk M, Lafos M, Humm E, Arrabit M, Crook M, Gross E, Simon MF, Bueno dos Reis F, Whitman WB, Shapiro N, Poole PS, Hirsch AM, Venter SN, James EK. (2018) Whole Genome Analyses Suggests that Burkholderia sensu lato Contains Two Additional Novel Genera (Mycetohabitans gen. nov., and Trinickia gen. nov.): Implications for the Evolution of Diazotrophy and Nodulation in the Burkholderiaceae. Genes 9(8):389. 10.3390/genes9080389
Naalden D, Haegeman A, de Almeida‐Engler J, Eshetu FB, Bauters L, Gheysen G. (2018) The Meloidogyne graminicola effector Mg16820 is secreted in the apoplast and cytoplasm to suppress plant host defense responses. Molecular Plant Pathology 19(11):2416-2430. 10.1111/mpp.12719
Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI, Hardy GESJ, Gené J, Guarro J, Baseia IG, García D, Gusmão LFP, Souza-Motta CM, Thangavel R, Barili A, Barnes CW, Bezerra JDP, Bordallo JJ, Cano-Lira JF, de Oliveira RJV, Ercole E, Hubka V, Iturrieta-González I, Kubátová A, Martín MP, Moreau PA, Morte A, Ordoñez ME, Rodríguez A, Stchigel AM, Vizzini A, Abdollahzadeh J, Abreu VP, Albuquerque GMR, Alexandrova AV, Álvarez Duarte E, Armstrong-Cho C, Banniza S, Barbosa RN, Bellanger JM, Bezerra JL, Cabral TS, Caicedo E, Cantillo T, Carnegie AJ, Carmo LT, Castañeda-Ruiz RF, Clement CR, Conceição LB, Cruz RHSF, Damm U, da Silva BDB, da Silva GA, da Silva RMF, Santiago ALCMdA, de Oliveira LF, de Souza CAF, Déniel F, Dima B, Dong G, Edwards J, Félix CR, Fournier J, Gibertoni TB, Hosaka K, Iturriaga T, Jadan M, Jany JL, Landell MF, Leite Cordeiro TR, Lima DX, Loizides M, Luo S, Machado AR, Madrid H, Magalhães OMC, Marinho P, Miller AN, Morozova OV, Neves RP, Nonaka K, Nováková A, Oberlies NH, Oliveira-Filho JRC, Oliveira TGL, Papp V, Pereira OL, Perrone G, Peterson SW, Pham THG, Raja HA, Raudabaugh DB, ehulka J, Rodríguez-Andrade E, Saba M, Schauflerová A, Shivas RG, Simonini G, Siqueira JPZ, Sousa JO, Stajsic V, Svetasheva T, Tan YP, Ullah S, Valente P, Valenzuela-Lopez N, Abrinbana M, Viana Marques DA, Wong PTW, Xavier de Lima V, Groenewald JZ. (2018) Fungal Planet description sheets: 716-784. Persoonia 40(1):239-392. 10.3767/persoonia.2018.40.10
Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (Euwallacea sp.) and Fusarium dieback (Fusarium euwallaceae)
Tchotet Tchoumi JM, Coetzee MPA, Rajchenberg M, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. (2018) Three Ganoderma species, including Ganoderma dunense sp. nov., associated with dying Acacia cyclops trees in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology 47(4):431-447. 10.1007/s13313-018-0575-7
Nicole M. Van Dam, Mesfin Wondafrash, Vartika Mathur , Tom O. Tytgat. (2018) Differences in hormonal signaling triggered by two root-feeding nematode species result in contrasting effects on aphid population growth. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6(88) 10.3389/fevo.2018.00088
Mlonyeni XO, Wingfield MJ, Greeff JM, Wingfield BD, Slippers B. (2018) Genetic diversity of Amylostereum areolatum, the fungal symbiont of the invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio in South Africa. Forest Pathology :e12449. 10.1111/efp.12449
Jami F , Marincowitz S, Crous PW, Jacobsohn A, Wingfield MJ. (2018) A new Cytospora species pathogenic on Carpobrotus edulis in its native habitat. FUSE 2(1):37-43. 10.3114/fuse.2018.02.03 PDF
Wingfield BD, Bills GF, Dong Y, Huang W, Nel WJ, Swalarsk-Parry BS, Vaghefi N, Wilken PM, An Z, de Beer ZW, De Vos L, Chen L, Duong TA, Gao Y, Hammerbacher A, Kikkert JR, Li Y, Li H, Li K, Li Q, Liu X, Ma X, Naidoo K, Pethybridge SJ, Sun J, Steenkamp ET, van der Nest M, van Wyk S, Wingfield MJ, Xiong C, Yue Q, Zhang X. (2018) IMA Genome-F 9 Draft genome sequence of Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina, and Morchella septimelata. IMA Fungus 9(1):199-223. 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.13 PDF